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als Webserver verwenden wir Apache2 mit PHP, mod_security, mod_auth_pam, mod_deflate. Desweiteren lassen wir die Logfiles nach einem Tag rotieren.


LogFormat "%v %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" vcombined
LogFormat "%{Host}i %h %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %O \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{User-Agent}i\"" vhost_combined

# global access log
CustomLog "|| /usr/sbin/vlogger -s access.log -t access.log.%Y.%m -u ${APACHE_RUN_USER} -g ${APACHE_RUN_GROUP} ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/vlogger" vcombined

UseCanonicalName Off


<Directory />
        AllowOverride None
      <IfVersion >= 2.4>
    Require all denied
    <IfVersion < 2.4>
        Order Deny,Allow
        Deny from all

ServerTokens Prod
ServerSignature Off
TraceEnable Off


#against BEAST
SSLHonorCipherOrder On


# enable only secure protocols: TLSv1.2, but not SSLv2
SSLProtocol -ALL -TLSv1 -TLSv1.1 +TLSv1.2


Blocks access to /administrator, eg. from joomla and to sample files

But if you have a special cookie you are allowd to access

Just type /admin-mega-hidden

#this is global
RewriteEngine On

#the rules from the current scope are applied before rules specified in any child's scope
#works only if child has 'RewriteEngine On'
RewriteOptions InheritDownBefore

RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/administrator
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/wp-login.php [or]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/README.txt [OR]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/LICENSE.txt [OR]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/htaccess.txt [OR]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/robots.txt.dist [OR]
RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} ^/web.config.txt
RewriteCond %{HTTP_COOKIE} !JoomlaAdminSession=19283ddfgdfgdfgdfgdgdgdg65

#send error 404, so it will not be logged in audit.log
RewriteRule .* - [L,F,R=404]

#this php file creates a cookie to access /administrator
Alias /admin-mega-hidden /srv/www/_webrootauth/joomla-admin-12345
<Directory "/srv/www/_webrootauth/joomla-admin-12345/">
        Require all granted

header("Location: /administrator/index.php");

#enable module
a2enconf joomla-admin-block



authnz_external (pwauth)

replaces mod_auth_pam

apt-get install libapache2-mod-authnz-external pwauth

AddExternalAuth pwauth /usr/sbin/pwauth
SetExternalAuthMethod pwauth pipe

AuthBasicProvider external
AuthExternal pwauth
Require user user

see http://icephoenix.us/linuxunix/apache-and-http-authentication-with-pam/

authnz_external (imap)

replaces mod_auth_imap Download

host = localhost
port = 1143
cache-dir = /srv/www/_tmp
allow-everybody = .*

AddExternalAuth imapauth /usr/bin/checkpasswd-imap-pipe.py
SetExternalAuthMethod imapauth pipe

#virtual host
AuthType Basic
    AuthName "Authentication Required"
    AuthBasicProvider external
    AuthExternal imapauth
require valid-user


ModSecurity is an open source, free web application firewall (WAF) Apache module. With over 70% of all attacks now carried out over the web application level, organizations need all the help they can get in making their systems secure. WAFs are deployed to establish an external security layer that increases security, detects and prevents attacks before they reach web applications. It provides protection from a range of attacks against web applications and allows for HTTP traffic monitoring and real-time analysis with little or no changes to existing infrastructure.

Installation http://www.thefanclub.co.za/how-to/how-install-apache2-modsecurity-and-modevasive-ubuntu-1204-lts-server



SecRuleEngine On

SecRequestBodyLimit 16384000
SecRequestBodyInMemoryLimit 16384000

SecTmpDir /var/cache/modsecurity/
SecDataDir /var/cache/modsecurity/
SecUploadDir /var/cache/modsecurity/upload/

#don't log credentials to logfile
SecDefaultAction "phase:1,deny,log,sanitiseRequestHeader:Authorization"
SecDefaultAction "phase:2,deny,log,sanitiseRequestHeader:Authorization"

cd /etc/modsecurity
mv /etc/modsecurity/modsecurity.conf-recommended /etc/modsecurity/modsecurity.conf
mkdir activated_rules activated_optional_rules
ln -s /usr/share/modsecurity-crs/base_rules base_rules
ln -s /usr/share/modsecurity-crs/optional_rules/ optional_rules
cd base_rules
for f in `ls *` ; do ln -s /etc/modsecurity/base_rules/$f /etc/modsecurity/activated_rules/$f ; done
cd ..

cd optional_rules
for f in `ls *` ; do ln -s /etc/modsecurity/optional_rules/$f /etc/modsecurity/activated_optional_rules/$f ; done
cd ..

ln -s /usr/share/modsecurity-crs/modsecurity_crs_10_config.conf

Enable module in apache

Include "/etc/modsecurity/*.conf"
Include "/etc/modsecurity/activated_rules/*.conf"
Include "/etc/modsecurity/activated_optional_rules/*.conf"

optional disable filter

Für bestimmte Verzeichnisse kann man den Filter auch ausstellen:

<LocationMatch "/ajaxplorer/">
SecRuleRemoveById 200003 960024 960915


<Location /upload.php>
    # Do not inherit filters from the parent folder
    SecFilterInheritance Off

Virus-Scanner for uploaded files

#in modsecurity_crs_46_av_scanning.conf
# Modify the operator to use the correct AV scanning script/tool
# Example tools are in the util directory.

SecRule FILES_TMPNAMES "@inspectFile /usr/bin/runAV.pl" \
        "phase:2,t:none,block,msg:'Virus found in uploaded file',id:'950115',tag:'MALICIOUS_SOFTWARE/VIRUS',tag:'PCI/5.1',severity:'2',setvar:tx.anomaly_score=+%{tx.critical_anomaly_score},setvar:tx.%{rule.id}-MALICIOUS_SOFTWARE/VIRUS-%{matched_var_name}=%{tx.0}"

Global Blacklist

#disable rule for all domains

SecRuleRemoveById 960015

#Request Missing a User Agent Header
SecRuleRemoveById 960009

bad robot data

/etc/modsecurity/activated_rules/modsecurity_35_bad_robots.data e.g. to remove surveybot



see PHP


WEBDAV-Modul für Apache. Damit ist es möglich Dateien über https zu manipulieren (ändern, löschen, erstellen usw.). installieren: a2enmod dav

 Alias /phparea /home/gstein/php_files
 Alias /php-source /home/gstein/php_files
 DavLockDB /tmp/DavLock.myvhost
 <Location /php-source>
  Dav On
  AuthType Basic
  AuthName DAV
  AuthPAM_Enabled on
  require group staff
  php_flag engine off # oder  ForceType text/plain


mod_evasive is an evasive maneuvers module for Apache to provide evasive action in the event of an HTTP DoS or DDoS attack or brute force attack. It is also designed to be a detection and network management tool, and can be easily configured to talk to ipchains, firewalls, routers, and etcetera. mod_evasive presently reports abuses via email and syslog facilities.

Detection is performed by creating an internal dynamic hash table of IP Addresses and URIs, and denying any single IP address from any of the following:

  • Requesting the same page more than a few times per second
  • Making more than 50 concurrent requests on the same child per second
  • Making any requests while temporarily blacklisted (on a blocking list)
<IfModule mod_evasive.c>
  #DOSHashTableSize gibt die Größe der Hashtabelle in Bytes an
  DOSHashTableSize 3097

  #DOSPageCount gibt die Anzahl der Seitenaufrufe eines Clients pro DOSPageInterval-Zeitintervall
  DOSPageCount 2

  #DOSSiteCount gibt die Anzahl der Seitenaufrufe auf einen Child-Prozess pro DOSSiteInterval-Zeitintervall
  DOSSiteCount 50

  #DOSPageInterval und DOSSiteInterval werden in Sekunden angegeben
  DOSPageInterval 1
  DOSSiteInterval 1

  #DOSBlockingPeriod gibt die Sperrzeit in Seknunden an
  DOSBlockingPeriod 60

  #DOSEmailNotify gibts die eMail Adresse an, an welche eine Warnmail geschickt wird
  DOSEmailNotify admin@mydomain.net

  #DOSSystemCommand führt bei einem Angriff weitere Programme/Scripte aus wenn gewünscht
  #DOSSystemCommand "su - someuser -c '/sbin/... %s ...'"

  #DOSLogDir gibt das Verzeichnis an in dem das Modul seine Logfiles schreibt
  DOSLogDir /srv/www/vlogger/_mod_evasive

  #DOSWhitelist beinhaltet eine Aufzählung aller IP-Adressen für die mod_evasive NICHT gilt


Bandbreiten-Beschränkung http://nodomain.cc/archives/2007/01/05/684-Apache2-Zugriffskontrolle-mit-mod_cband.html


config see above (z_security)

SSL-Test: https://www.ssllabs.com/ssltest/ or https://observatory.mozilla.org/

Logging POST requests with Apache

found on https://www.technovelty.org/web/logging-post-requests-with-apache.html

SecRuleEngine On
SecAuditEngine on
SecAuditLog /var/log/apache2/website-audit.log
SecRequestBodyAccess on
SecAuditLogParts ABIFHZ

SecDefaultAction "nolog,noauditlog,allow,phase:2"

SecRule REQUEST_METHOD "^POST$" "chain,allow,phase:2"
SecRule REQUEST_URI ".*" "auditlog"